Among all the factors that affect the growth of plants in your garden, like temperature, light water, nutrients, etcetera, soil plays a crucial role as it is the pathway through which your plant’s roots get these nutrients and form their internal canopy.
A change in the quality of soil can show both positive and negative effects on soil, such as hindering or exponentially increasing the plant’s growth.
Although methods like Aquaponics have now come into play, more than half of the gardening in the States alone is still dependent on soil.
If you want your product to be in line with your expectations, you must know what soil works for you, and if you have the wrong kind of soil in your vicinity, how can you use it to your advantage.
This article will walk you through the entire process.
What are the Different Types of Soil?
It has a gritty texture which allows it to dry out at a faster rate. It is also easy to cultivate and eases drainage. Due to quick draining, it is able to hold up fewer nutrients in itself during the wetter spells of the year.
This soil’s composition can be balanced by adding greensand, kelp meal, glacial rock dust, or organic fertilizers. Mulching can also help supplement the nutrient concentration and improve retaining capacity.
This type of soil is ideal for plants such as sun roses, hibiscus, tulips, potatoes, carrots, strawberries, peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes.
This soil transitions between its lumpy and dry state when it becomes dry from wet. Due to the thick texture, it is heavy to cultivate and usually warms up in springs.
Clay has naturally fewer pores for aeration. As a result, the draining capacity of this soil is poor. To enhance clay soil, its drainage must be enhanced so that plants can surface out of it.
It is ideal for farming Aster, Bergamot, Helen’s Flower. Shrubs also thrive well in clay soil and give a high yield.
This soil is well known for its high nutrient composition. It feels soft to touch and can hold water quite well.
It is the best choice for your garden, provided you have good drainage facilities available. Compost made up of organic carbon and humus helps improve this soil. This aids in amending the structure and improving drainage.
The majority of vegetables and plants have shown good yield in this soil. Crops like shrubs, grasses, and perennials are ideal for moisture-loving trees; take the Birch tree, for example.
As the name suggests, it has high volumes of peat which gives it a dark shade. Due to the high pH it possesses, it slows down any decomposition on the surface level.
This soil lacks in terms of nutrients and can be improved by adding lime to reduce its acidity along with organic compost. Glacial rock dust can also be used to change pH levels.
This soil is suitable for growing heather, camellia, legumes, and root crops.
This is the best choice for garden or potted plants despite being acidic in nature. It is a combination of clay, silt, and sand.
It does not get dry during high temperatures for a good amount of time. This quality makes it ideal for outdoor plants. It has a fine texture.
Crops cultivated on this soil are Rubus, Bamboos, climbers, perennials, and shrubs such as Dog’s tooth violets, Wisteria etcetera.
This soil does well after the addition of humus to it. Found commonly on limestones, in some cases, it has stunted the growth of plants due to its alkaline nature along with giving leaves a yellow tint.
It is suited for growing cabbage, lilac, spinach, oranges, etcetera.
How to Know Your Soil Type?
Load your soil with water. Most probably, soil that drains quickly will be sandy; clay soils take longer to settle in.
If you grab a handful of the soil sample in your hands and gently press it, you can estimate the type by feeling its texture. If the soil forms a mold when squeezed and doesn’t change its shape, it is clay soil.
Peaty Soil will seem spongy while the gritty texture is displayed by sandy soil. Loamy and Silty soil will retain their shape when pressed, but only for a short amount of time.
You can purchase a pH test kit from any online store- ideal for gardening is 6.5-7, which is neither too acidic nor too alkaline. Areas with a hard water supply will most probably have alkaline.
Soil Testing Kit
A Soil Testing Kit will help you assess the exact nutrient concentration of the soil.
It is recommended to test the ground at least thrice during the growing season.
How to Choose the Right Soil for Your Plant
You do not have to stress if the soil type in your region is not recommended for your selected produce.
You can always make amends in the soil structure to make it suitable. As a general rule of thumb, plants require a neutral land to flourish,i.e., seven pH.
If your soil is on the alkaline side, you can add sulfur or aluminum sulfate to tip the scale towards neutrality. In comparison, lime will make the ground more basic.
For restoring nutrient concentration, you can add organic matter and manure. A mixture of mulch, leaves, and grass clippings will do the trick.
For soils that lack aeration, such as clay soil, greensand can be mixed to loosen it.
Soil Nutrient Imbalance and its Pitfalls
For the betterment of your garden, you must provide the 17 essential micronutrients(iron and copper) and macronutrients(nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and phosphorus) to the soil.
Their shortage may lead to nutrient imbalance which may affect your crops in the following ways –
- Rotting of tomatoes( caused by lack of calcium)
- Stunted Growth
Tips to Improve Soil Quality
For the land to be fertile, these three ingredients should be in adequate quantity: Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Potassium.
Lower pH leads to a decline in macronutrients, and higher pH leads to a plummeted level in micronutrients.
Nutrient Imbalance: This is the most common problem faced by gardeners. Soils tend to lose their fertility have you have harvested it.
You can restore this by:
- Using cover crops such as legumes and clover. These crops fix nitrogen levels and improve drainage.
- Crop Rotation
- Addition of rock dust
- Natural compost can also replenish old elements and restore soil health.
Bonus-Recipe to your Soil Mix
Mix the following ingredients, and voila, your perfect mix is ready-
- ½ cubic yard perlite
- ½ cubic yard peat moss
- 5 pounds limestone
- 5 pounds blood meal
- 10 pounds bone meal
- Do not forget to store this mixture in an air-tight container.
The most crucial aspect to consider is that healthy gardening techniques result in healthy plants.
Crop rotation and the incorporation of organic manure on a regular basis means that the soil is not exhausted, contributing to healthy and nutritious plants.
Heat mats are also used to promote and stimulate the growth of young saplings. Providing sufficient moisture in the garden during droughts encourages plant growth.