Soil is soil, right? We dig holes, place our flowers, and hope for the best. But what lies beneath the surface has a lot to do with the success of our garden. Find out the answer to is clay soil good for plant growth in this article.
Is clay soil good for plant growth: For the most part, clay soil is not good for plant growth. It is compact which makes it hard for roots to grow and it retains water, which can lead to root rot. The best way to combat clay soil is to dig up your garden and add extra organic matter. The alternative is to find plants that love clay. While this is not an extensive list, there are still good plant options.
What does clay soil mean?
First, let’s start by explaining what, exactly, clay soil is. The easiest way to understand the term is that clay soil is made of mineral particles and not a lot of organic material.
The mineral particles stick together, so it can be hard to get organic matter into it. As a result, there are not a lot of nutrients in the area.
Clay is often specific to the region you live in. Clay deposits can cover large areas underground, so if you hear your neighbor complaining about clay in their garden, there’s a good chance you have a lot of clay, as well.
Signs you have clay in your soil
When you water your garden, does the water tend to stay on top of the ground and take a while to seep in? Clay is very dense so it takes a long time for water to work its way through the area.
After heavy rainfall and you go out to your garden, do your boots make a squelching sound? Clay gets very sticky when it is wet so you may find it hard to navigate your way through the area.
On the opposite end of the spectrum, what does your soil look like when it is dried out? Nutrient-rich soil will stay firm while clay will start to crack at the top and form a sort of crust.
You may have the above signs in your garden but if not, you can turn to soil testing to make sure. Soil testing kits are easy to use and are available online or at local gardening centers.
Take a sample of your soil and run it through the test. It will tell you your pH level, what nutrients are in your soil, and the overall condition of your dirt.
Advantages of clay soil
While we will mainly focus on how to improve your garden if there is a lot of clay soil, there are some advantages to it. In fact, there are many plants that do well in clay.
When you water clay soil it takes a long time for that water to run through. As a result, clay will hold moisture really well, which is beneficial for plants that like to have wet roots.
Lots of minerals
Inside clay is plenty of minerals that are beneficial for your plants. These include calcium, magnesium, and potassium.
Reasons that affect plant growth with clay soil
One of the major reasons you want to work and improve your clay soil is that the ground is very compact. Plants grow extensively underground and if there is no space for the roots to spread out, your plants won’t grow.
Even if you are able to get your plants to grow, they will often be stunted in growth.
There are many types of plants that have delicate root structures. If these root structures sit in water for too long, they will rot and die.
Any sort of bulb or tuber needs well-draining soil. Clay is very compact so it holds water for a long time.
Cold in spring
Whenever you add new plants to your garden in the spring, you need to wait until the air and soil temperature warms up. If you plant them when it is too cold out for specific types, they won’t grow properly.
Clay, due to its compactness and water retention, takes a lot longer to warm up than regular dirt. Either you can miscalculate your planting timeframe or you may even miss your planting window as you wait for the soil to get warm enough.
Higher alkaline level
Soil is often referred to as acidic or alkaline, based on its pH level. While every plant has its own preference, the majority prefer soil that is slightly acidic.
Clay tends to be on the higher end of the spectrum so it can limit what you can plant in that area.
How to improve clay soil for plant growth?
Dig a large area
If you have clay in one part of your garden, you probably have clay in the entire garden. Once you are aware of the issue, it’s better to dig the entire garden up.
This can be a bit of a large task, depending on how big your garden is, so plan accordingly. You will need at least 6 inches of new organic matter to add, and you will have to find somewhere to place the oil clay soil.
Furthermore, if you have plants that are already growing there, you will need to dig them up and place them somewhere temporarily.
If you have a lot of clay in your soil, you may have to remove the top few inches and place it elsewhere. However, if you have more of a mix of clay, then you can simply add to the area.
Add in your organic material. This can be a combination of compost, manure, and even grass clippings.
Dig down so that you are turning over at least 8 inches. You can even go up to 12 inches deep if you have the strength. For larger areas, consider using a motorized tiller.
For those that are adding to your garden, you will notice that it is higher than when you started. This is okay as the organic matter will break down and your soil will settle through the year.
Continue to add compost to your garden twice a year so that you are always improving your soil.
Don’t add sand
The opposite of clay is sand, so some gardeners may think this is the easiest way to fix clay soil. However, clay and sand are not a good combination. In fact, the result is a hard mixture that nothing will grow in.
Your goal is to create loamy soil, which is a mixture of sand and organic matter. If you don’t add organic matter part, you won’t be able to improve your soil.
Continue to test
It’s wise, to begin with, a soil test to see how your garden fares. Then, you can add your organic matter and test again.
Keep testing every six months to ensure your garden is improving. If the pH level isn’t changing, or you see that you have nutrient deficiencies, it means your approach isn’t working.
Continue to add organic matter
As we mentioned previously, continually adding organic matter to your garden will help keep the soil full of nutrients. This is true for any type of garden.
To make things easier for you, try not to clean up too much in the fall. Let leaves fall on your garden and if you have annual plants, allow them to decompose right in your garden.
This whole process is natural and will help add organic matter to your garden. Plus, it means less yard work for you.
How do you grow plants in clay soil?
If you have clay but want to try planting anyway, there are a few tips to get you started.
First, you will want to dig a hole that is twice as wide as the root ball. However, don’t go any deeper.
You don’t need to add any extras, such as gravel. Instead, place your plant in the hole and backfill it with soil.
You can choose to use the same soil if you think it has enough nutrients or adds organic matter and new soil to improve the area.
While changing the entire gardening area will be better in the long run, you can still get away with only changing the area you want to plant in.
What plants grow best in clay soil?
Plants that have taproots, which mean the roots grow straight downward, are strong enough to get through layers of clay. This can include Bluestars and butterfly milkweed.
Other plants that have strong enough roots include black-eyer Susans and asters. You may also be able to grow some varieties of ornamental grasses.
There are also some shrubs that do well in clay soil. Bayberries love clay and dogwoods and witch hazel will also grow well.
While clay is not desirable in a garden, you can add plenty of organic matter to your soil to help improve it. You can also select plants, such as asters and bayberries, that thrive in clay soil.